There’s a lot of information about how to type in Japanese on google, (like this) but no one page punctuation guides, so I made one. Click here for a high res version.
This will hopefully help people who are around JLPTN4 or N3 get to grips with typing like a native and being able to ask questions about finer details of text with native speakers.
There are two excellent and detailed resources available on Tofugu & Wikipedia, where you can find out more.
One point to note about typing in Japanese that is important is the difference between 半角 （はんかく）, half-width characters and 全角 （ぜんかく）, full-width characters. There is some information on the Tofugu page, but they don’t use these terms.
If you want your text to look professional and like a native wrote it, then you need to make sure you don’t randomly switch back and forth between 全角 and 半角 because you prefer how some 半角 characters look, or feel the 全角 take up too much space. According to the native speaker I consulted at length about this, printed texts, like essays and books, are generally written entirely in 全角. In my experience email addresses, URLs and Roman numerals are all written in 半角, even when in the middle of Japanese text, everything else is written in 全角, this is because computer systems have trouble recognising full-width numerical characters. So use half-width roman numerals for postal codes, phone numbers, URLs and the like.
This image was created by me, but has been checked by a native speaker for accuracy (Hajime Maeda, check out his tumblr). The dog is Lilly, she was Hajime’s childhood pet and it makes him happy when I talk about her, because he misses her, so I decided that through my pictures Lilly will live on.